In this article we are going to cover What is Prometheus, Why to use Prometheus, Prometheus Architecture,Prometheus Components,How to Install Prometheus on Amazon Linux 2.
Table of Contents
What is Prometheus?
- Prometheus is a open source Linux Server Monitoring tool mainly used for metrics monitoring, event monitoring, alert management, etc.
- Prometheus has changed the way of monitoring systems and that is why it has become the Top-Level project of Cloud Native Computing Foundation (CNCF).
- Prometheus uses a powerful query language i.e. “PromQL”.
- In Prometheus tabs are on and handles hundreds of services and microservices.
- Prometheus use multiple modes used for graphing and dashboarding support.
Why to use Prometheus?
- A multi-dimensional data model with time series data identified by metric name and key/value pairs
- PromQL, a flexible query language to leverage this dimensionality
- Pushing time series is supported via an intermediary gateway
- Multiple modes of graphing and dashboarding support
As above we can see an architecture of Prometheus monitoring tool.
We made a basic design to understand it easily for you people.
Now lets understand the Prometheus components one-by-one
1. Prometheus Server
- Prometheus server is a first component of Prometheus architecture.
- Prometheus server is a core of Prometheus architecture which is divided into several parts like Storage, PromQL, HTTP server, etc.
- In Prometheus server data is scraped from the target nodes and then stored in the database.
- Storage in Prometheus server has a local on disk storage.
- Prometheus has many interfaces that allow integrating with remote storage systems.
- Prometheus uses its own query language i.e. PromQL which is a very powerful querying language.
- PromQL allows the user to select and aggregate the data.
2. Service Discovery
- Next and very important component of Prometheus Server is the Service Discovery.
- With the help of Service discovery the services are identified which need to be scraped.
- To Pull metrics, identification of services and finding the targets are compulsory needed.
- Through Service discovery we monitor the entities and can also locate its targets.
3. Scrape Target
- Once the services are identified and the targets are ready then we can pull metrics from it and can scrape the target.
- We can export the data of the end point using node exporters.
- Once the metrics or other data is pulled, Prometheus stores it in a local storage.
4. Alert Manager
- Alert Manager handles the alerts which may occurs during the session.
- Alert manager handles all the alerts which are sent by the Prometheus server.
- Alert manager is one of the very useful components of the Prometheus tool.
- If in case any big error or any issue occurs, alert manager manage those alerts and contact with human via E-mail, Text Messages, On-call, or any other chat application service.
5. User Interface
- User interface is also an important component as it builds a bridge between the user and the system.
- In Prometheus, user interfaces are note that much user friendly and can be used till graph queries.
- For good exclusive dashboards Prometheus works together with Grafana (visualization tool).
- Using Grafana over Prometheus to visualize properly we can use custom dashboards.
- Grafana dashboards display via pie charts, line charts, tables, good data graphs of CPU usage, RAM utilization, network load, etc with indicators.
- Grafana supports and run with Prometheus by querying language i.e. PromQL.
- To fetch data from Prometheus and to display the results on Grafana dashboards PromQL is used.
The Prometheus client libraries offer four core metric types.
A counter is a cumulative metric that represents a single monotonically increasing counter whose value can only increase or be reset to zero on restart.
A gauge is a metric that represents a single numerical value that can arbitrarily go up and down.
A histogram samples observations and counts them in configurable buckets.
Similar to a histogram, a summary samples observations. While it also provides a total count of observations and a sum of all observed values, it calculates configurable quantiles over a sliding time window.
How to Install Prometheus on Amazon Linux 2
Create a system user for Prometheus using below commands:
sudo useradd --no-create-home --shell /bin/false prometheus
Create the directories in which we will be storing our configuration files and libraries with this commands:
sudo mkdir /etc/prometheus
sudo mkdir /var/lib/prometheus
Set the ownership of the /var/lib/prometheus directory with below command:
sudo chown prometheus:prometheus /var/lib/prometheus
You need to inside /tmp :
Download prometheus using wget using below command, if you want download latest prometheus then visit prometheus download page
Extract the files using tar :
tar -xvf prometheus-2.31.1.linux-amd64.tar.gz
You need to inside prometheus-2.31.1.linux-amd64 so run the below command:
Move the configuration file and set the owner to the prometheus user:
sudo mv console* /etc/prometheus
sudo mv prometheus.yml /etc/prometheus
sudo chown -R prometheus:prometheus /etc/prometheus
Move the binaries and set the owner:
sudo mv prometheus /usr/local/bin/ sudo chown prometheus:prometheus /usr/local/bin/prometheus
Create the prometheus service file using below command:
sudo nano /etc/systemd/system/prometheus.service
Add the below line in this /etc/systemd/system/prometheus.service
--config.file /etc/prometheus/prometheus.yml \
--storage.tsdb.path /var/lib/prometheus/ \
Reload systemd using below command:
sudo systemctl daemon-reload
Enable Prometheus service using below commands:
sudo systemctl enable prometheus
Start Prometheus service using below commands:
sudo systemctl start prometheus
Use below command to enable prometheus service in firewall or AWS security group.
sudo firewall-cmd --add-service=prometheus --permanent sudo firewall-cmd --reload
Now Prometheus service is ready to run and we can access it from any web browser.
Here are some snapshots of Prometheus dashboards and graphs.
We have covered What is Prometheus, Why to use Prometheus, Prometheus Architecture,Prometheus Components,How to Install Prometheus on Amazon Linux 2.