How to Install SonarQube on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS

In this article, we are going to perform, How to Install SonarQube on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS.

Introduction

SonarQube is an opensource web based tool to manage code quality and code analysis. It is most widely used in continuous code inspection which performs reviews of code to detect bugs, code smells and vulnerability issues of programming languages such as PHP, C#, JavaScript, C/C++ and Java , Also tracks statistics and creates charts that enable developers to quickly identify problems in their code.

Prerequisites

  • Ubuntu 20.04 LTS with minimum 2GB RAM and 1 CPU.
  • PostgreSQL Version 9.3 or higher
  • SSH access with sudo privileges
  • Firewall Port: 9000
Here, We are installing SonarQube 7.9.3 version and have to install Oracle JAVA/Open JDK, Postgres/MS-SQL as database and Latest browser before installing SonarQube. To know Prerequisite visit sonarqube official pageNote: MySQL Support for SonarQube is depricated. Increase the vm.max_map_count kernal ,file discriptor and ulimit for current session at runtime.
 sudo sysctl -w vm.max_map_count=262144
 sudo sysctl -w fs.file-max=65536
ulimit -n 65536
ulimit -u 4096
To Increase the vm.max_map_count kernal ,file discriptor and ulimit permanently . Open the below config file and Insert the below value as shown below,
 sudo nano /etc/security/limits.conf
/etc/security/limits.conf
sonarqube   -   nofile   65536
sonarqube   -   nproc    4096
OR If you are using systemd to manage the sonarqube services then add below value in sonarqube unit file under [service] section.
[Service]
...
LimitNOFILE=65536
LimitNPROC=4096
...
Before installing, Lets update and upgrade System Packages
 sudo apt-get update
 sudo apt-get upgrade
Install wget and unzip package
 sudo apt-get install wget unzip -y

Step 1: Install OpenJDK

Install OpenJDK and JRE 11 using following command,
 sudo apt-get install openjdk-11-jdk -y
 sudo apt-get install openjdk-11-jre -y

SET Default JDK

To set default JDK or switch to OpenJDK enter below command,
 sudo update-alternatives --config java
You will see below choices for the alternative java (providing /usr/bin/java).
Selection    Path                                            Priority   Status

------------------------------------------------------------

  0            /usr/lib/jvm/java-11-openjdk-amd64/bin/java      1111      auto mode

  1            /usr/lib/jvm/java-11-openjdk-amd64/bin/java      1111      manual mode

  2            /usr/lib/jvm/java-8-openjdk-amd64/jre/bin/java   1081      manual mode

* 3            /usr/lib/jvm/java-8-oracle/jre/bin/java          1081      manual mode
Type  1 to switch OpenJDK 11.

Check JAVA Version:

 java -version
Output:
java -version

openjdk version "11.0.7" 2020-04-14

OpenJDK Runtime Environment (build 11.0.7+10-post-Ubuntu-3ubuntu1)

OpenJDK 64-Bit Server VM (build 11.0.7+10-post-Ubuntu-3ubuntu1, mixed mode, sharing)

Step 2: Install and Setup PostgreSQL 10 Database For SonarQube

Add and download the PostgreSQL Repo
sudo sh -c 'echo "deb http://apt.postgresql.org/pub/repos/apt/ `lsb_release -cs`-pgdg main" >> /etc/apt/sources.list.d/pgdg.list'
 wget -q https://www.postgresql.org/media/keys/ACCC4CF8.asc -O - | sudo apt-key add -
Install the PostgreSQL database Server by using following command,
sudo apt-get -y install postgresql postgresql-contrib
Start PostgreSQL Database server
sudo systemctl start postgresql
Enable it to start automatically at boot time.
 sudo systemctl enable postgresql
Change the password for the default PostgreSQL user.
 sudo passwd postgres
Switch to the postgres user.
su - postgres
Create a new user by typing:
createuser sonar
Switch to the PostgreSQL shell.
psql
Set a password for the newly created user for SonarQube database.
ALTER USER sonar WITH ENCRYPTED password 'sonar';
Create a new database for PostgreSQL database by running:
CREATE DATABASE sonarqube OWNER sonar;
grant all privileges to sonar user on sonarqube Database.
grant all privileges on DATABASE sonarqube to sonar;
Exit from the psql shell:
\q
Switch back to the sudo user by running the exit command.
exit

Step 3: How to Install SonarQube on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS

Download sonaqube installer files archieve To download latest version of visit SonarQube download page.
 cd /tmp
 sudo wget https://binaries.sonarsource.com/Distribution/sonarqube/sonarqube-7.9.3.zip
Output:
sudo wget https://binaries.sonarsource.com/Distribution/sonarqube/sonarqube-7.9.3.zip

https://binaries.sonarsource.com/Distribution/sonarqube/sonarqube-7.9.3.zip

Resolving binaries.sonarsource.com (binaries.sonarsource.com)... 91.134.125.245

Connecting to binaries.sonarsource.com (binaries.sonarsource.com)|91.134.125.245|:443... connected.

HTTP request sent, awaiting response... 200 OK

Length: 209531101 (200M) [application/zip]

Saving to: ‘sonarqube-7.9.3.zip’

sonarqube-7.9.3.zip                    100%[==========================================================================>] 199.82M  1.31MB/s    in 34s

 ‘sonarqube-7.9.3.zip’ saved [209531101/209531101]
Unzip the archeve setup to /opt directory
 sudo unzip sonarqube-7.9.3.zip -d /opt
Move extracted setup to /opt/sonarqube directory
 sudo mv /opt/sonarqube-7.9.3 /opt/sonarqube

Step 4: Configure SonarQube

We can’t run Sonarqube as a root user , if you run using root user it stops automatically. We have found solution on this to create saparate group and user to run sonarqube.

1. Create Group and User:

Create a group as sonar
 sudo groupadd sonar
Now add the user with directory access
 sudo useradd -c "user to run SonarQube" -d /opt/sonarqube -g sonar sonar 
 sudo chown sonar:sonar /opt/sonarqube -R
Open the SonarQube configuration file using your favorite text editor.
 sudo nano /opt/sonarqube/conf/sonar.properties
Find the following lines.
#sonar.jdbc.username=
#sonar.jdbc.password=
Uncomment and Type the PostgreSQL Database username and password which we have created in above steps and add the postgres connection string.
/opt/sonarqube/conf/sonar.properties
#--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

# DATABASE

#

# IMPORTANT:

# - The embedded H2 database is used by default. It is recommended for tests but not for

#   production use. Supported databases are Oracle, PostgreSQL and Microsoft SQLServer.

# - Changes to database connection URL (sonar.jdbc.url) can affect SonarSource licensed products.

# User credentials.

# Permissions to create tables, indices and triggers must be granted to JDBC user.

# The schema must be created first.

sonar.jdbc.username=sonar
sonar.jdbc.password=sonar
sonar.jdbc.url=jdbc:postgresql://localhost:5432/sonarqube
Edit the sonar script file and set RUN_AS_USER
 sudo nano /opt/sonarqube/bin/linux-x86-64/sonar.sh
/opt/sonarqube/bin/linux-x86-64/sonar.sh
# If specified, the Wrapper will be run as the specified user.

# IMPORTANT - Make sure that the user has the required privileges to write

#  the PID file and wrapper.log files.  Failure to be able to write the log

#  file will cause the Wrapper to exit without any way to write out an error

#  message.

# NOTE - This will set the user which is used to run the Wrapper as well as

#  the JVM and is not useful in situations where a privileged resource or

#  port needs to be allocated prior to the user being changed.

 RUN_AS_USER=sonar
Type CTRL+X to save and close the file.

2. Start SonarQube:

Now to start SonarQube we need to do following: Switch to sonar user
 sudo su sonar
Move to the script directory
 cd /opt/sonarqube/bin/linux-x86-64/
Run the script to start SonarQube
./sonar.sh start
Output:
Starting SonarQube...

Started SonarQube
We can also add this in service and can run as a service.

3. Check SonarQube Running Status:

To check if sonaqube is running enter below command,
./sonar.sh status
Output:
[email protected]:~/bin/linux-x86-64$ ./sonar.sh status

SonarQube is running (9490).

4. SonarQube Logs:

To check sonarqube logs, navigate to /opt/sonarqube/logs/sonar.log directory
 tail /opt/sonarqube/logs/sonar.log
Output:
INFO  app[][o.s.a.ProcessLauncherImpl] Launch process[[key='ce', ipcIndex=3, logFilenamePrefix=ce]] from [/opt/sonarqube]: /usr/lib/jvm/java-11-openjdk-amd64/bin/java -Djava.awt.headless=true -Dfile.encoding=UTF-8 -Djava.io.tmpdir=/opt/sonarqube/temp --add-opens=java.base/java.util=ALL-UNNAMED -Xmx512m -Xms128m -XX:+HeapDumpOnOutOfMemoryError -Dhttp.nonProxyHosts=localhost|127.*|[::1] -cp ./lib/common/*:/opt/sonarqube/lib/jdbc/h2/h2-1.3.176.jar org.sonar.ce.app.CeServer /opt/sonarqube/temp/sq-process15059956114837198848properties

 INFO  app[][o.s.a.SchedulerImpl] Process[ce] is up

 INFO  app[][o.s.a.SchedulerImpl] SonarQube is up
using about output you will see that sonaqube is up and running successfully.

Step 5: Configure Systemd service

First stop the SonarQube service as we started manually using above stepsNavigate to the SonarQube installed path
 cd /opt/sonarqube/bin/linux-x86-64/
Run the script to start SonarQube
./sonar.sh stop
Create a systemd service file for SonarQube to run as System Startup.
 sudo nano /etc/systemd/system/sonar.service
Add the below lines,
/etc/systemd/system/sonar.service
[Unit]
Description=SonarQube service
After=syslog.target network.target

[Service]
Type=forking

ExecStart=/opt/sonarqube/bin/linux-x86-64/sonar.sh start
ExecStop=/opt/sonarqube/bin/linux-x86-64/sonar.sh stop

User=sonar
Group=sonar
Restart=always

LimitNOFILE=65536
LimitNPROC=4096

[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target
Save and close the file. Now stop the sonarqube script earlier we started to run using as daemon. Start the Sonarqube daemon by running:
 sudo systemctl start sonar
Enable the SonarQube service to automatically  at boot time System Startup.
 sudo systemctl enable sonar
check if the sonarqube service is running,
 sudo systemctl status sonar
Successfully, We have covered How to Install SonarQube on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS .

Step 6: Access SonarQube

To access the SonarQube using browser type server IP followed by port 9000.
http://server_IP:9000 OR http://localhost:9000
Login to SonarQube  with default administrator username and password is admin. sonarqube-web-interface Finally, We have successfully performed all steps to for sonarqube setup..If you want to change IP address , adding multipla IP address and change the default change in SonarQube Properties as shown below
 sudo nano /opt/sonarqube/conf/sonar.properties
/opt/sonarqube/conf/sonar.properties
# Binding IP address. For servers with more than one IP address, this property specifies which

# address will be used for listening on the specified ports.

# By default, ports will be used on all IP addresses associated with the server.

sonar.web.host=0.0.0.0


# Web context. When set, it must start with forward slash (for example /sonarqube).

# The default value is root context (empty value).

#sonar.web.context=

# TCP port for incoming HTTP connections. Default value is 9000.

sonar.web.port=9000

Troubleshooting

loaded plugin [org.elasticsearch.transport.Netty4Plugin] ERROR: [1] bootstrap checks failed. max virtual memory areas vm.max_map_count [65530] is too low, increase to at least [262144]. Solution: Elasticsearch uses a MMap FS directory to store its indices. The default operating system limits on mmap counts is possibly to be too low, which may result in out of memory exceptions. Enter the below command to increase virtual memory value using sudo privileges,
 sudo sysctl -w vm.max_map_count=262144
Output:
 sudo sysctl -w vm.max_map_count=262144
vm.max_map_count = 262144
To set value permanently, update the vm.max_map_count value in /etc/sysctl.conf. To verify after rebooting,
 sysctl vm.max_map_count

Conclusion:

In this article, We have performed ,How to Download and How to Install SonarQube on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS with Configure Sonarqube, Creating Systemd Service and Troubleshooting sonarqube.

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